Years ago, ham radio operators more often than not had land, and usually there weren’t any restrictions on what kind of antenna they could erect on that land. These days you are more likely to live with less or no land, and even if you do own property, you might have restrictions that prevent you from putting up any kind of visible antenna.
But even if that’s not the case, you might not have room for an old-fashioned “tri-bander” or “cubical quad” that the hams of old preferred. [Waters & Stanton] has a 65-year-old design for a miniature beam that he explains, and it produces a good beam antenna in a reduced amount of space. You can watch a video about the antenna below.